Whether filter coffee, espresso or instant coffee, there is no evidence that coffee consumption in the usual quantities is associated with a health risk, says nutritionist Anja Baustian of the Society of Nutritional Medicine and Dietetics eV from Aachen. In 2005, an American research group investigated the effects of caffeine-containing and decaffeinated coffee on heart, blood circulation, and metabolism. Caffeinated coffee did not have any negative effect on the measured parameters of blood pressure, pulse rate, body mass index, blood sugar level, insulin level or various blood lipid levels (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL) (1). Anyone who has problems with the cholesterol level, however, should prefer to filter coffee, as it largely filters out the coffee oils.
Influence of caffeine on the body
After a sumptuous meal, espresso and coffee stimulate gastric acid production as well as bile secretion and thereby bring the stomach and intestines on their toes. Coffee drinkers with a sensitive stomach should rather grab the espresso than the cup of filter coffee. Espresso is easier on the stomach than filter coffee.
Reason is the longer and stronger roasting of the beans. Acids and other irritating substances that often cause stomach problems are destroyed. In addition, caffeine can increase blood pressure. Therefore, caffeine helps with headaches. However, migraines and chronic headaches can not be treated with a cup of coffee.
Different types of production
The most classic way to enjoy a coffee is with the help of the filter method. Espresso is prepared according to the vapor pressure principle. It is characterized by its short contact time, about 20 to 30 seconds, between espresso flour and water. Soluble coffee is a product made exclusively from roasted coffee using water. The instant powder is made from the brewed bean liquid, which is concentrated and dried after the coffee grounds are removed.
Of the ingredients, the three differ only slightly. Coffee consists of over 1200 ingredients: insoluble carbohydrates, soluble carbohydrates, coffee oils, Maillard products, alkaloids including caffeine, minerals, acids such as citric, acetic, malic, chlorogenic, and quinic acids, as well as 1000 volatile flavors.
Even if coffee is harmless to health, a balanced diet should not consume more than four to five cups a day. Apart from the preparation, the ingredients and thus the physiological effect are relatively the same. Whether it should be the filter coffee, espresso or even soluble coffee, depends solely on the taste. Literature:
(1) Coffee and Lipoprotein Metabolism study (CALM). The National Institutes of Health